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    The Snow Covered Area product is based on a Normalized Difference Snow Index(NDSI), which is similar to NDVI, but exploits different bands in the equation (Equation 3),namely Green (Band 4) and Short Wavelength Near-infrared (SWNIR, Band 6). It isimportant to note that the Band 6 sensor on MODIS Aqua malfunctioned shortly after launch,so Snow Covered Area from the Aqua sensor is calculated using Bands 3 and 7. This mayintroduce errors in identifying snow in vegetated areas, as the use of Band 7 results in falsesnow detection. For this reason the MODIS Terra product has been provided for the CAFF-system.

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    The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) population in Greenland has been monitored in different survey areas in South and West Greenland since 1972. At visits to Peregrine Falcon nests, eggshell fragments from hatched eggs as well as addled (dead) eggs left behind have been collected with the aim of monitoring the thickness of the eggshells as well as analysing the whole eggs for contaminants. The shell thickness serves as a proxy for the falcons’ exposure to certain persistant organic pollutants, in particular DDT and its breakdown products (see summaries in Cade et al. 1988). This data set contains the raw data on 6665 eggshell thickness measurements of: 1. Whole eggs from South Greenland 1986-2015 2. Eggshell fragments from the study area in South Greenland 1981-2019 3. Eggshell fragments from the study area around Kangerlussuaq in West Greenland 1972-1989 The data set contains a mix of measurements of shell thickness including or excluding the eggshell membranes from the same clutch of eggs. Based on those measurements the average membrane thickness is 0.071 mm (SD=0.013) – a figure confirmed by other studies – and this ’membrane factor’ can be added or subtracted for comparisons with other data sets. Further details regarding the sampling areas, measurement methods and the results of trends analyses of changes in shell thickness are provided in Falk et al. (2006 and 2018). The file named 1_Data_Eggshell_Thickness_1972-2019.csv contains the raw measurements data and the file 2_ReadMe_Eggshell_Thickness_1972-2019.txt specifies the content. The file named 3_Rscript_Eggshell_Thickness_1972-2019.R provides an R script for summarizing and plotting the data as shown in the file 4_Plot_Eggshell_Thickness_1972-2019.pdf

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    Trend quality categories are: (1) data are lacking such that trends are unknown, (2) regional and site-specific monitoring allow for assumptions of trend, (3) international monitoring allows estimation of trend direction, and (4) rigorously designed international monitoring programmes yield estimates of precision. Modified from Smith et al. 2020. STATE OF THE ARCTIC TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY REPORT - Chapte31 - Page 59 - Figure 3.26

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    Trends in biomass or diversity of benthic Focal Ecosystem Components across each Arctic Marine Area. STATE OF THE ARCTIC MARINE BIODIVERSITY REPORT - Chapter 4 - Page 179 - Figure 4.3

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    Distributions of all capelin species (light green) and Pacific capelin (Mallotus catervarius; dark green pattern) based on participation in research sampling, examination of museum voucher collections, the literature and molecular genetic analysis (Mecklenburg and Steinke 2015, Mecklenburg et al. 2016). Map shows the maximum distribution observed from point data and includes both common and rare locations STATE OF THE ARCTIC MARINE BIODIVERSITY REPORT - <a href="https://arcticbiodiversity.is/findings/marine-fishes" target="_blank">Chapter 3</a> - Page 117 - Figure 3.4.5

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    Figure 2-2 Arctic freshwater boundaries from the Arctic Council’s Arctic Biodiversity Assessment developed by CAFF, showing the three sub-regions of the Arctic, namely the high (dark purple), low (purple) and sub-Arctic (light purple)

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    It has not been possible to identify available trend data for Arctic Ocean sea surface temperatures because there is not enough data to calculate reliable long-term trends for much of the Arctic marine environment (IPCC 2013, NOAA 2015). Here, sea surface temperature for July 2015 is shown from CAFF’s Land Cover Change Index. MODIS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) provided a four-kilometre spatial resolution monthly composite snapshot made from night-time measurements from the NASA Aqua Satellite. The night-time measurements are used to collect a consistent temperature measurement that is unaffected by the warming of the top layer of water by the sun. STATE OF THE ARCTIC MARINE BIODIVERSITY REPORT - <a href="https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marine" target="_blank">Chapter 2</a> - Page 25 - Figure 2.3

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    Figure 4.1. Avian biodiversity in different regions of the Arctic. Charts on the inner circle show species numbers of different bird groups in the high Arctic, on the outer circle in the low Arctic. The size of the charts is scaled to the number of species in each region, which ranges from 32 (Svalbard) to 117 (low Arctic Alaska). CAFF 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and Trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri - Birds (Chapter 4) page 145

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    Figure 4 23 Species richness of aquatic macrophytes excluding mosses and algae in five geographic regions of the Arctic. Ame = North America, Fen = Fennoscandia, Far = Faroes, Ice = Iceland, Gre = Greenland. State of the Arctic Freshwater Biodiversity Report - Chapter 4 - Page 55 - Figure 4-22

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    Arctic Marine Areas (AMAs) as defined in the CBMP Marine Plan. STATE OF THE ARCTIC MARINE BIODIVERSITY REPORT - <a href="https://arcticbiodiversity.is/marine" target="_blank">Chapter 1</a> - Page 15 - Figure 1.2