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    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) and Protection of the Arctic Marine Environments (PAME) working groups of the Arctic Council developed this indicator report. It provides an overview of the status and trends of protected areas in the Arctic. The data used represents the results of the 2016 update to the Protected Areas Database submitted by each of the Arctic Council member states (Annex 1). This report uses the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) definition for protected areas (see Box 1) which includes a wide range of Management Categories – from strict nature reserve to protection with sustainable use. Consequently, the level of protection and governance of these areas varies throughout the circumpolar region and its countries.

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    Breeding bird species in the different geographic zones of the low and high Arctic

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    Within the CAFF boundary there are 92 protected areas recognised under global international conventions. These include 12 World Heritage sites3 (three of which have a marine component) and 80 Ramsar sites, which together cover 0.9% (289,931 km2) of the CAFF area (Fig. 4). Between 1985 and 2015, the total area covered by Ramsar sites4 almost doubled, while the total area designated as World Heritage sites increased by about 50% in the same time period (Fig. 5). ARCTIC PROTECTED AREAS - INDICATOR REPORT 2017

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    Appendix 9.1 List of all Arctic vascular plant species (with PAF code number) and their distribution in the 21 Arctic floristic provinces and 5 subzones based on Elven (2007).

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    Distribution by broad geographic region and low or high arctic zones.

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    Appendix 10.1. Updated Panarctic Lichen Checklist as used for the calculations (version March 2013) with data on preferred substrate, growth form (crustose, squamulose, foliose, fruticose), rarity of species within and outside the Arctic, occurrence in the low and high Arctic and occurerence in the floristic provinces.

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    Appendix 10.2. Data on diversity of lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the Arctic and separately for the sectors of the Arctic (Beringia, Canada, North Atlantic, European Russia, W and E Siberia) and the single floristic provinces: numbers of species, numbers of species in the low and high Arctic, percentage of species with respective growth form (crustose, squamulose, foliose, fruticose), the estimated number of missing crustose lichen species (explanations below), percentage of species on the respective substrate on which the lichen species grow, and rarity of species within and outside the Arctic.

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    Appendix 17.3. Phylogeographic and population genetics studies of selected Arctic species.

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    Appendix 9.7 Species list with full names of liverworts of Greenland according to Damsholt (2010, unpublished) including 22 families, 50 genera and 173 species.

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    Appendix 9.2 The 106 Arctic endemic vascular plant species (with PAF code number) and their distribution in the Arctic floristic provinces and subzones (A-E) compiled from Elven (2007).